雅思阅读最常见的考点总结

雅思学习 培训小站 来源:新浪教育 244浏览 0评论

结合近期的雅思阅读考试、剑桥雅思真题集4-11、以及《雅思OG》,笔者在本文中将总结之前的考试规律、展望未来的考试趋势,给众多雅思考生呈现一些雅思阅读考试中常见的考点,让大家对雅思阅读有一个全新的认识,争取在考试中取得惊人的高分。

雅思

雅思阅读考试只是测试考生对字面的阅读理解能力,不会对文章背后的深层内容作仔细的考查。所以在这样一种限制的情况之下,只要付出一定的努力,对考试内容作一个系统总结,一定可以把这种考试的常见考点(即测试规律)概括出来。下面是笔者通过多年的教学经验,总结出来的一些雅思阅读考试的规律:

从大的方面入手,这项考试要做的事情就两件:定位和判断。定位指的是找到每一道题目在文章中精确的对应句;判断指的是将题目在文章中定位后,根据文章的内容细节确定题目的答案。每一位考生面对考题的时候,不管是先读文章,还是先读题目,都要利用这两步来把题目做对。定位时要对雅思阅读中常见的十二种类型的题目顺序有一个非常细致的了解,定位之后的判断要对文章中对应的句子认真阅读,仔细对比题目和文章的对应关系,从而确定题目的答案。任何一位考生要想拿到自己期望的高分都要从这两方面入手。

下面根据笔者的经验,从两个方面(读题目和读文章)入手概述一下在读到哪些内容时要特别注意,因为那些地方非常容易出现考点。

角度一:读题目时特别要注意的考点

题目中的数据词

如果题目中出现了“statistical,statistics, cost, fund, large number, percent, percentage”等的时候,文章中相对应的句子会出现相对应的与数据相关的词。下面看几个例子:

例子一:

剑5 TEST 1 Passage 1 Q1 多项选择选项C. It was famous because of the large number ofpeople involved. 题目中出现了数据词“large number”, 根据这个词在文章中找与题目意思有关的句子,并且其中有可能包括数据。在文章中第5段找到这么一句话:“He was also helped by six assistants, two ofwhom died whilst the Dictionary was still in preparation.”根据两句话的意思,“6个助手”不算一个比较大(large number)的数据,所以这个选项是不对的。

例子二:

剑5 TEST 1 Passage 2 Q17 “the expected statisticaloutcome”, 是一个“段落细节”题,让考生找这句话在文章中哪一段出现。题目有一个非常明显的数据词“statistical”, 根据猜测,文章中相对应的句子可能会出现数据。文章中D段:“Prior to carrying out the experiment, Milgramexplained his idea to a group of 39 psychiatrists and asked them to predict theaverage percentage of people in an ordinary population who would be willing toadminister the highest shock level of 450 volts. …… The psychiatrists feltthat ‘most subjects would not go beyond 150 volts’ and they further anticipatedthat only four per cent would go up to 300 volts. Furthermore, theythought that only a lunatic fringe of about one in 1,000 would give thehighest shock of 450 volts.”。文章中的数据“only four per cent”和“one in 1,000”对应了题目中的“statistical”, 同时,文章中的“predict the average percentage of people”与题目中的“expected statistical outcome”相对应,所以这道题对应的句子应该是这段话。

例子三:

剑7 TEST 2 Passage 2 Q14 “a cost involved inpurifying domestic water”, 这道题同样是一道“段落细节”题,让考生找出这句话在文章中哪一段出现。题目中的数据词是“cost”, 文章中应该会出现一些与“钱和数据”有关的词,在文章中可以非常明显地看到E段有很多数据:“The costs included: ?120m for removal ofpesticides; ?16m for removal of nitrates; ?55m for removal ofphosphates and soil; ?23m for the removal of the bug cryptosporidiumfrom drinking water by water companies.”而判断的时候发现文章中的“drinking water(饮用水)”与题目中的“domestic water(家庭用水)”相对应,所以此题对应的就是文章的E段。

题目中的时间词

如果题目中出现了与“最初(previous, original, originally, initial,initially, beginning, before, at first…)”、“最后(at last, later, end, finally, ultimately,eventually…)”和“现在(now, these days, current, currently, our time, with us…)”有关的词,因为题目和文章内容的一致性,所以文章中也会出现相对应的词。

例子一:

剑5 TEST 2 Passage 3 Q28 “In Europe, modem scienceemerged at the same time as the nation state. At first, the scientificlanguage of choice remained __________.”题目中有一个时间词“at first(最初)”,到文章中找与前面相关的时间词,在文章第5段有这样一句话:“There were several reasons why originalscience continued to be written in Latin.” 清晰地出现了时间词“original”, 根据这句话意思,题目应该填“Latin”。

例子二:

剑9 TEST 3 Passage 3 Q32 “a reference to whatShannon initially intended to achieve in his research”, 是一道“段落细节”题,是整个雅思考题中最难的题目。根据定位词“Shannon”和时间词“initially”, 在文章C段第一句(This all seems light years away from thedown-to-earth uses Shannon originally had for his work, which began when he wasa 22-year-old graduate engineering student at the prestigious MassachusettsInstitute of Technology in 1939.)里看到了定位词“Shannon”和时间词“originally”, 再仔细读句子的意思,两句话的意思对应得很紧密。所以此题应该选择C段。

例子三:

剑9 TEST 1 Passage 1 Q10 “What was the name finallyused to refer to the first colour Perkin invented?”, 题目中的时间词是“finally”, 而文章第8段中相对应句子是“Perkin originally named his dye Tyrian Purple,but it later became commonly known as mauve (from the French for theplant used to make the colour violet)”,题目中“finally”的时间对应词是“later”。

题目中的并列、因果、转折词

还是因为题目和文章意思的一致性,题目中的逻辑关系在文章中一般也会出现,出现最多的是“并列关系”、“因果关系”和“转折关系”。

1)并列关系词:and, as well as, first…second…, either…or…, neither…nor…

例子一:

剑九 TEST 1 Passage 1 Q4 “Perkin was still young whenhe made the discovery that made him rich and famous.”, 题目中出现了并列关系“rich and famous”, 根据定位词“Perkin、young、discovery”, 在文章中找到的对应句子是第3段中的:“Perkin’s scientific gifts soon caught Hofmann’sattention and, within two years, he became Hofmann’s youngest assistant. Notlong after that, Perkin made the scientific breakthrough that would bring him bothfame and fortune.”, 文章中出现了并列关系:“fame and fortune”, 根据同义替换关系,“fame”对应“famous”、“fortune”对应“rich”。这是一道判断题,所以这道题应该选择“TRUE”。

例子二:

剑7 TEST 4 Passage 1 Q13 “In addition, over two thousandyears ago kites were used in China as weapons, as well as for sending 13”,

题目中的并列关系是“as well as”, 这个短语的意思相当于“and”, 所以根据顺序原则,在文章中第8段最后一句话中找到了并列关系“and”, 文章的原句是:“other ancient civilisations certainly knew aboutkites; as early as 1250 BC, the Chinese were using them to deliver messagesand dump flaming debris on their foes.”,题目中的时间词“over two thousand years ago”也和文章中的“early as 1250 BC(早在公元前1250年)”形成了很好的时间对应关系,另外就是动词的同义替换:题目中的“sending”和文章中的“deliver(递送)”相对应。所以第13题应该填“messages”。

例子三:

剑5 TEST 2 Passage 3 Q30&31 “In Britain,moreover, scientists worried that English had neither the 30 northe 31 to express their ideas.” 题目中出现了一组否定并列关系词“neither…nor…”, 所以文章中也会出现类似的并列关系,通过填空题的顺序原则和题目中的定位词“In Britain”, 在文章第7段找到了否定并列关系句:“English was not well equipped to deal withscientific argument. First, it lacked the necessary technicalvocabulary. Second, it lacked the grammatical resources required torepresent the world in an objective and impersonal way, …”, 文章中的并列关系是“first…, second…”, 而表示否定意思的词“lack(缺少)”正好与题目中的“neither…nor…”对应。

2)因果关系词:because, because of, since, as, for, due to, account for, reasoning,explain, attribute to

例子一:

剑7 TEST 1 Passage 1 Q11 “Radar is an inaccurateterm when referring to bats because are not used in their navigation system.”, 题目中出现了“因果”关系词“because”, 文章中也会出现相应的“因果”关系。根据填空题的顺序原则,在文章最后一段话发现了相应的因果关系句“It is technically incorrect to talk about bat’radar’, since they do not use radio waves.”, 通过仔细读文章中句子的意思,会发现非常明显的意思对应关系,而且出现了因果关系词“since”, 所以第11个空填“radio waves”。

例子二:

剑7 TEST 1 Passage 2 Q22 判断题:“Feeding increasing populations is possible dueprimarily to improved irrigation systems.” 题目本身的因果关系在文章中的对应关系是第二段的句子:“Food production has kept pace with soaringpopulations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigationsystems that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food.”。题目中的“due…to…”与文章中的“because of”相对应,在意思上也有非常紧密的联系,所以这道题选择“YES”。

3)转折关系词:

但是、然而类:but, however, nevertheless (nonetheless), whereas,yet;

虽然、尽管类:although, even though, even if, despite, in spiteof, while;

相反类:conversely, by(in) contrast, on the contrary, onthe other hand

例子一:

剑5 TEST 2 Passage 3 Q33&34 “AlthoughEnglish was then overtaken by 33, it developed again in the 19th centuryas a direct result of the 34”, 题目中有明显的转折关系“although”, 所以根据顺序原则和定位词“19th century”, 找到文章最后一段话:“It (German) is estimated that by the end of the18th century 401 German scientific journals had been established as opposed to96 in France and 50 in England. However, in the 19th century scientificEnglish again enjoyed substantial lexical growth as the industrial revolutioncreated the need for new technical vocabulary,…”, 题目中“although”后面“33题”所在句子的内容正好和文章中“however”之前的部分相对应;而“34题”所在句子与文章中“however”之后的部分相对应,根据意思的对应关系,33题应该填“German”,34题应该填“industrial revolution”。

角度二、读文章时特别要注意的考点

1、文章每段话首二句中的疑问句、转折句、过渡句

按照西方人的思维方式,写作的时候一般情况下会给出每段话的中心思维,而这个中心句通常会放在每段话的开头,所以这样的写作特色对于“Heading”题的帮忙会很大。如果在段落的首二句中出现了“疑问句、转折句、过渡句”这三种句型,一般情况下就是对相应段落的段意概述。

例子一:疑问句

剑7 TEST 3 Passage 2 E段第一句话:“How far does other research support theseconclusions?”, 根据这句话,我们可以猜想到:这段话下面的内容肯定是讲“其他研究是如何来支持这些结论的”,所以第一句就是这段话的“中心句”,它与“List of Heading”中的“vi: Further genetic evidence relating to thethree-wave theory”意思相对应,所以这段话的段意是“vi”。

例子二:疑问句

剑7 TEST 1 Passage 2 G段第一句话:“What explains this remarkable turn of events?”, 根据这句话,我们可以猜想到下面的内容肯定是对“his remarkable turn of events”的解释,对照文章后发现,从第二句话开始讲:“Two factors: people have figured out how to usewater more efficiently, …”, 这很明显是对第一句的延伸,所以第一句话是这段话的中心句,它所对应的Heading是:“ii: An explanation for reduced water use”。

例子三:转折句

剑7 TEST 3 Passage 2 A段首二句:“Study of the origins and distribution of humanpopulations used to be based on archaeological and fossil evidence. A number oftechniques developed since the 1950s, however, have placed the study ofthese subjects on a sounder and more objective footing.”, 这段第二句出现了转折句,说明是这段话的中心句,和“Heading”中的“iv: Developments in the methods used to studyearly population movements”完全对应,而且题目和文章之间出现了同义替换:“Heading”中的“developments”和“methods”分别对应文章中的“developed”和“techniques”。

例子四:过渡句

剑9 TEST 1 Passage 2 C段第一句话:“Even when we make these assumptions, ourunderstanding of other life forms is still severely limited.” 根据这句话我们可以猜到:上一段话肯定是作了很多假设(assumptions), 而这一段讲:即使我们做出这些假设,我们对于其他生命形式的理解依然受到了限制。所以根据这句话,我们可以找到上一段话的“Heading”是:“iv: Assumptions underlying the search forextra-terrestrial intelligence”。

例子五:过渡句

剑7 TEST 1 Passage 2 D段第一句话:“The consequences of our water policies extend beyondjeopardising human health.(我们水政策的影响超出了危害人类健康的层面)”,通过这一句话,我们可以猜出两方面的信息:一、上一段话讲的是我们的水政策对人类健康的危害;二、本段会讲我们水政策的影响除了危害人类健康还危害到了什么。根据这个猜测,所以上一段的“Heading”应该是:“v: The relevance to health”。

2、文章中的转折词和强调性词

这些词汇有:particularly, in particular, essentially, inessential, specifically, obviously, clearly, fortunately, unexpectedly,specially, in fact, turn out, …

因为在出题的时候,出题人经常会对文章的重点内容作详细考查,检测考生能不能快速抓住文章重点,而这些词之后的内容就是一篇文章的重点,所以这些词之后的内容特别容易成为考点内容。

例子一:

剑9 TEST 3 Passage 3 B段有一句话:“While at Bell Laboratories, Shannon developedinformation theory, but shunned the resulting acclaim.”,文章中“but”之后的内容提到:“Shannon避开了应得的称赞”。文章后第29题:“a reference to Shannon’s attitude to fame”考到了这句话的信息。

例子二:

剑5 TEST 1 Passage 2 A段有一句话:“Specifically, Milgram told each volunteer’teacher-subject’ that the experiment was in the noble cause of education, andwas designed to test whether or not punishing pupils for their mistakes wouldhave a positive effect on the pupils’ ability to learn.”, 这句话放在了强调性词“Specifically”之后,文章后第15题“the explanation Milgram gave theteacher-subjects for the experiment”考查的就是这句话的信息。

在整个剑桥系列真题和新版雅思OG上,有大量的阅读真题是根据文章中转折词和强调性词之后的内容所设计出来的,这一点,在大家做完题后总结的时候可以作进一步的验证。

3、文章中的固定搭配

文章中的“As…as…(…和…一样)”结构经常成为“判断题”的出题点,所以如果在文章中读到一定要特别注意。

例子一:

剑5 TEST 1 Passage 1 C段有一句话:“It is highly appropriate that Dr Samuel Johnson,the very model of an eighteenth-century literary man, as famous in hisown time as in ours, should have published his Dictionary at the verybeginning of the heyday of the middle class.”出现了“as…as…”结构,表示Samuel Johnson在他的时代和在我们的时代一样出名,文章第9题“Johnson has become more well known since hisdeath.”对这句话作了考查,所以第9题应该选择“FALSE”。

例子二:

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剑7 TEST 1 Passage 2 A段有一句话:“At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems,with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied theoccupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided inmany parts of the industrial world today.”, 这句提到两个时期用的水是一样多的,考题21“Water use per person is higher in theindustrial world than it was in Ancient Rome.”讲到“工业社会每个人的用水量要比古罗马时期每个人的用水量要高”,所以这个题也选择“FALSE”。

例子三:

剑9 TEST 3 Passage 1 A段有一句话:“Arguments can start as easily over minorpoints of usage as over major policies of linguistic education.”, 这句话的内容是“两种争论都可以轻易地发生,他们发生的难易程度是一样的”。文章后考题2讲到:“People feel more strongly about languageeducation than about small differences in language usage.(人们对于语言教育要比对于小的语言用法的感知程度更强烈)”,所以这道题也选择“FALSE”。

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